History

History of southern France (excerpt)

The city of Nîmes is ascribed to keltic inhabitants. They shall have worshipped the God Nemausus (a son of Herakles) at the source of the same name. The settlement is nominated by the emperor Augustus “Colonia Augusta Nemausus” on 16 B.C. Nemausus (Nîmes) is situated along the well known Roman Street Via Domitia which connected Beaucaire with the Pyrenees (construction began in 118 B.C.) and integrated the various oppida (gallic forts). The Oppidum Ambrussum is partially conservated till nowadays, situated near Lunel (at the A9 between Nîmes and Montpellier).

3-5th century: The Christianity gained a foothold in Southern France. First monasteries occurred.
476 A.C.: end of the westroman empire.
507: Franconian King Chlodwig I. captured the empire of the Westgotes by Burgundy’s help up to the Pyrenees.
536: The Provence becomes franconian territory.
843: In the contract of Verdun the empire of Charles the Great is divided. The Provence fell to emperor Lothaire I.
947: The Provence becomes part of the empire Burgundy.
1032: Burgundy looses the Provence to the Holy Roman Empire of German Nation.
1209: Simon de Montfort penetrated into the Languedoc with his army of 30’000 soldiers and fights against the Albigenses.
1309-1376: Philippe IV. forces Pope Clemens V. to establish himself at Avignon. Avignon becomes the centre of the catholic Christianity, resp. of the exile of 7 Antipopes.
1343-1480: Golden Age of the Provence under the King René d’Anjou.
1501: Louis XII. developes in the Provence the first Parliament that receives juridical and political rights.
1539: French becomes the official language in the Provence.
1566: Sète with its Mediterranean Sea harbour is created.
1598: Edict of nates: End of the religious wars by conceding freedom of faith to the Protestants.
1629: Contract of Peace of Alès: Confirmation of the Edict of Nantes to the Protestants.
1659: Contract of the Pyrenees: The territory of Roussillon which belongs to the Kingdom of Aragón comes under French Authority.
1666-1681: The canal du Midi (connection Mediterranean Sea to the Atlantic) is constructed.
1685: Annulment of the Edict of Nantes: expulsion of the (protestantic) Hugenottes.
1702-1704: Cevennes Wars with burning of the Cevennes and capitualtion of the Camisards.
1720: Marseille’s inhabitants is nearly cut in halve by black death.
1789: French Revolution with effects up to Southern France.
1815: Napoleon leaves Elba and crosses the Provence via Grasse, Digne-les-Bains and Gap (Route Napoleon).
1838: the wellknown painter Paul Cézanne was born in Aix-en-Provence.
1860: The italian county Nizza was assigned to France by a plebiscite.
1878: The scottish writer Robert Louis Stevenson wandered for two weeks across the Cevennes with a donkey and made them wellknown thereby.
1947: first fil festival at Cannes.
1999: Marseille celebrated its 2600 year jubilee of the city.

Uzès: the roman city Ucetia develops in the Middle Age to a beautiful little bishop’s city. The tower “Tour Fenestrelle” of the 12th century is the piece of jewellery of Uzès and might be visited also nowadays. The Duke (Duché), the old Palace of the Duke with a Renaissance Front is also worth visiting. Therein lived members of the dynasty of the Uzès the female branch of which leads back to Charles the Great. 1565: a member of this dynasty receives the title of a duke by Charles IX.